The Ames Vertical Gun Range (AVGR) was designed to conduct scientific studies of lunar impact processes in support of the Apollo missions. In 1979, it was established as a National Facility, funded through the Planetary Geology and Geophysics Program. In 1995, increased scientific needs across various disciplines resulted in joint core funding by three different science programs at NASA Headquarters (Planetary Geology and Geophysics, Exobiology, and Solar System Origins). In addition, the AVGR provides programmatic support for various proposed and ongoing planetary missions (e.g. Stardust, Deep Impact). Using its 0.30 cal light-gas gun and powder gun, the AVGR can launch projectiles to velocities ranging from 0.5 to nearly 7 km/sec. By varying the gun’s angle of elevation with respect to the target vacuum chamber, impact angles from 0° to 90° relative to the gravitational vector are possible. This unique feature is extremely important in the study of crater formation processes. Many projectile types including spheres, cylinders, irregular shapes, and clusters of small particles can be launched. They can be metallic (aluminum, copper, iron), mineral (quartz, basalt), or glass (Pyrex, soda-lime). Soda-lime spheres, for example, can be launched individually (for sizes ranging from 1.5 to 6.4mm diameter - 1/16 to 1/4 inch), in groups of three (0.2 to 1.2mm), or as a cluster of many particles (2 to 200-?m). The target chamber is approximately 2.5 meters in diameter and height and can accommodate a wide variety of targets and mounting fixtures. It can maintain vacuum levels below 0.03 torr, or can be back filled with various gases to simulate different planetary atmospheres. Impact events are typically recorded with high-speed video/film, or Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). http://www.nasa.gov/centers/ames/research/technology-onepagers/range-complex.html that's 22,965 Feet per second . . .